Resistance to antibiotics and the directly related proportion of multiresistant bacterial pathogens (MRP) is increasing continuously. This applies particularly for intensive care units. The most relevant MRP are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended spectrum ss-lactamase formers (ESBL), multiresistant pseudomonades and Acinetobacter species. According to WHO the world is in danger of entering a so-called "post-antibiotic era", in which it is no longer possible to treat the causes of infectious diseases with antibiotics. The reasons for this development are considered to be the increased morbidity of patients as well as the too frequent, too long-enduring and often inappropriate usage of antimicrobial substances. But also the increasing number of invasive measures and interventions as well as the still existing inadequate maintenance of hygiene standards and the inadequate establishment of non-medicamentous measures (e.g. hand disinfection) for infection prophylaxis play a significant role.
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